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I'm in the process of studying this topic, but will update the text below as I research.

In general the Masoretic Text (MT) is a Hebrew translation of the Old Testament created in the 9th Century by a group of Jews know as the Masoretes. Most Old Testaments translations today are based off of the MT. The Septuagint (LXX) is a Greek translation of the Old Testament that existed in Jesus day. This would have been the same Greek Old Testament that would have been in existence when Jesus was alive. The versions are very similar with the main difference really centering around the dates listed in the book of Genesis. There are no notable doctrinal differences ... only the dating between them. For example, the MT says that Adam was 130 years old when he had Seth. The LXX says Adam was 230 years old. These differences add up to around 1100 years more time in the LXX than in the MT.

Reasons why I think LXX is correct.

  • Luke 3:36 in the New Testament mentions Cainan as son of Arpachshad. The Old Testament currently in most modern Bibles is based on the Masoretic text created in the 9th century. I believe it was altered to hide the fact that Jesus was Messiah. Their version of Genesis 10:24 excludes Cainan. Perhaps to also make their Talmud line up with scripture. The Talmud places Nimrod and Abraham living at the same time. If Cainan is added in the list, this is not possible. If Cainan is removed, then the two men could have lived at the same time.
  • The book of Jubilees is based on the LXX version of the Old Testament, and mentiones Kainam (Cainan) as son of Arpachashad.
  • Clement mentioned in his book The Book of the Rolls that Nimrod was the first to wear a crown. That he reigned over the whole earth. He also mentioned that he died in the days of Reu which was in the 3rd thousand years from Adam...this would only be true of the LXX/Original Hebrew dating of Genesis.
  • Josephus used the original Hebrew and spoke of the age of the earth at that time being around 5000 years. The Hebrew in his day matched the LXX exactly. - "Those Antiquities contain the history of five thousand years" - Joseph. Ap. 1.1
  • The article The case for the Septuagint's chronology in Genesis 5 and 11 provides a detailed and indepth study of this topic, and comes to the conclusion that the LXX longer chronology is probably true, and Cainan's inclusion in the LXX Old Testament is likely true.